Vertical farming crops turned into a delicious looking farm salad.

Choosing the right vertical farming crops: A detailed guide

Whether you succeed with vertical farming depends on many choices, and among the most critical ones is choosing the right vertical farming crops. Here’s how you do it.

When starting a vertical farming operation, crop selection is one of the most crucial decisions you’ll face. Choosing the right vertical farming crops can mean the difference between a thriving, profitable operation and one that struggles to sustain itself. 

With the right crop choices, you can maximize your yield, profitability, and sustainability. This article aims to guide you through the process, highlighting the fundamentals of crop selection and explaining why this choice matters so much in the grand scheme of vertical farming.

How does vertical farming work, you ask? Read this article first: A comprehensive guide to vertical farming


  1. Why crop selection matters in vertical farming
  2. The basics of selecting vertical farming crops 
  3. Setting up for success: Essential considerations before selecting crops
  4. Crops: An overview
  5. Crop-specific considerations for vertical farming
  6. The importance of crop diversification in vertical farming
  7. Yield optimization: Enhancing productivity and profitability
  8. Environmental impact: The green thumbprint
  9. Economic aspects of crop selection
  10. Challenges in crop selection for vertical farming and how to overcome them
  11. Conclusion: Harvesting Success in Your Vertical Farm
  12. FAQs about vertical farming crops

Why crop selection matters in vertical farming

Selecting the right vertical farming crops isn’t just a matter of preference; it’s a strategic decision that directly impacts your farming operation’s success. The selection process determines the overall yield of your vertical farm, its profitability, and its environmental footprint.

Yield is a significant factor, as vertical farming aims to produce a high crop yield in a small space. Selecting crops that thrive under vertical farming conditions can maximize yield per square foot. 

Regarding profitability, crop selection is crucial as some vertical farming crops can fetch a higher price in the market, thus increasing revenue. Lastly, sustainability-wise, choosing crops that grow efficiently in a vertical farm setup can contribute to resource conservation and a lower environmental footprint.

Remember, it’s crucial to choose vertical farming crops that not only grow well in your setup but also align with your business objectives and the local market demand. Doing so will lead you to a successful and sustainable vertical farming operation.


A comprehensive guide to vertical farming

Master the art of vertical farming with our comprehensive guide. Explore the benefits, techniques, and success stories of vertical farming.

The basics of selecting vertical farming crops

At its core, choosing vertical farming crops boils down to understanding the capabilities and constraints of your vertical farming setup and matching these with the needs of potential crops. Here are some fundamental aspects to consider when choosing the right vertical farming crops:

  1. Crop size and growth habit: Large crops that spread out, such as corn or wheat, may not be suitable for vertical farming due to space limitations. Instead, crops that grow upward or stay small, like herbs, lettuce, or strawberries, can be excellent choices.
  1. Light requirements: Understanding the light requirements of potential crops is crucial, as different crops have varying needs for light intensity, duration, and spectrum.
  1. Temperature and humidity: Like light requirements, different crops have specific temperature and humidity needs. Thankfully, these can be controlled in a vertical farming environment.
  1. Market demand and crop value: Lastly, it’s crucial to consider the market demand and potential profit from your crops. High-value, in-demand crops like gourmet mushrooms or high-demand herbs can be profitable vertical farming crops.

Setting up for success: Essential considerations before selecting crops

The success of your vertical farming operation hinges on several pivotal decisions, and one of the most significant is selecting the right vertical farming crops. 

However, before diving headfirst into this process, you must evaluate your goals and constraints and understand the farming environment you’re working with. Doing so gives you a firm foundation to choose the crops that best suit your needs and can thrive in your specific setup.

Evaluating your goals and constraints

As a vertical farmer, you’re likely driven by a unique mix of goals. Perhaps you aim to maximize profit, reduce your environmental footprint, meet a specific community need, or some combination thereof. Your goals should play a key role when determining which vertical farming crops to grow.

For example, if maximizing profitability is your primary aim, you’ll want to focus on high-value crops with steady market demand. If sustainability is your chief concern, you might consider crops that use resources most efficiently.

Additionally, it’s crucial to understand your constraints. Space, budget, available technology, labor, and local regulations are all limiting factors that could affect your crop selection. For instance, high-value but cost-intensive crops might not be the best choice if you have a limited budget.

Understanding the farming environment

A thorough understanding of your farming environment is vital when choosing vertical farming crops. Factors such as available light (natural or artificial), temperature control, and humidity levels play a significant role in determining which crops will thrive.

Moreover, the type of vertical farming system you’re using, be it hydroponic, aeroponic, or aquaponic, also impacts the kinds of crops you can successfully grow. Each system has unique benefits and challenges, and understanding these can guide your crop selection process.
Relevant article: Understanding hydroponics, aeroponics, and aquaponics

Vertical farming crops: An overview

Vertical farming, while restricted by some physical limitations, opens a world of possibilities when it comes to crop selection. A wide array of crops can thrive in vertical farming systems, each with its pros and cons.

Varieties of crops suitable for vertical farming

Several types of crops have proven to be highly suitable for vertical farming. Some popular vertical farming crops include:

  1. Leafy greens: Lettuce, kale, spinach, and other leafy greens thrive in vertical farms due to their compact size, short growth cycle, and continuous harvest ability.
  1. Herbs: Basil, mint, oregano, and other herbs are excellent choices for vertical farms. They’re small, have high yield potential, and are often in high demand.
  1. Fruiting plants: Certain fruiting plants, such as strawberries and tomatoes, can do well in vertical farms, given the right conditions.
  2. Microgreens: These are young, tender greens harvested early in their growth cycle. They’re highly nutritious, grow quickly, and can fetch a high price in the market.

Nothing beats fresh!

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Special features of each crop: Pros and cons

Each of these vertical farming crops has its unique features, advantages, and drawbacks. For instance, leafy greens are quick to grow and harvest but may fetch lower prices than specialty crops. 

Herbs, while high value, can sometimes be more challenging to grow due to their specific environmental needs. Fruiting plants can fetch a higher market price but often require more care, larger spaces, and longer growth periods. Microgreens are highly profitable and grow quickly but may require a more niche market.

Flowers grown on an indoor farm.

By understanding each potential crop’s specific features, pros, and cons, you can make an informed decision about the best vertical farming crops for your v-farming purpose.

Crop-specific considerations for vertical farming

Choosing the right vertical farming crops for your operation extends beyond deciding which crops to grow. Each crop variety has specific light, temperature, humidity, and nutrient requirements. 

Understanding and catering to these needs are critical to ensuring optimal crop growth, health, and yield. Let’s delve into these crop-specific considerations.

Light requirements: The luminous lifeline of your crops

Light is a fundamental component of photosynthesis, the process by which plants convert light into chemical energy to fuel their growth. Consequently, understanding the light requirements of your vertical farming crops is pivotal.

Two layers of indoor vertical farming crops.

Each crop has unique needs when it comes to light intensity (how much light a plant receives), photoperiod (how long a plant receives light), and light spectrum (which colors or wavelengths of light a plant receives). For instance, leafy greens typically require lower light intensities than fruiting plants like tomatoes, which need high light intensities to thrive.

Artificial lighting, such as LED lights, allows you to control these light factors precisely in a vertical farming setting. In short, it’s crucial to tailor your lighting system to meet the specific needs of your chosen crops.

Read more: LED grow lights for tastier food and a healthier planet

Temperature and humidity: The invisible forces

Temperature and humidity play a significant role in the growth and development of your vertical farming crops. These invisible forces can affect crops’ germination, growth rate, disease resistance, and overall health.

Each crop has its preferred temperature range, known as the “comfort zone.” For example, lettuces and other leafy greens generally prefer cooler temperatures, while crops like tomatoes and peppers thrive in warmer conditions.

Humidity also influences plant growth and development. High humidity levels can promote certain plant diseases, while low humidity can lead to water stress. The best humidity level for your vertical farming crops will depend on their specific needs, and in many cases, balance is key.

Nutrient needs: The fuel for growth

Nutrients are the building blocks that fuel your crops’ growth and development. Each vertical farming crop has unique nutrient needs that must be met to achieve optimal growth.

In vertical farming systems, nutrients are usually provided through a nutrient-rich solution directly to the plant’s roots, bypassing the need for soil. This process, known as hydroponics, allows for precise control over the solution’s nutrient composition, pH, and concentration.

Some crops, like leafy greens and herbs, do well with a standard nutrient mix. But others, like fruiting plants, may require adjustments to their nutrient solution, especially during flowering and fruiting stages.

Awareness of your crops’ specific nutrient needs and monitoring your nutrient solution accordingly are vital steps toward growing healthy, high-yield crops in your vertical farm.

The importance of crop diversification in vertical farming

In traditional agriculture, crop diversification is often used to manage risk. By growing various crops, farmers can protect themselves against the failure of a single crop due to pests, diseases, or unfavorable weather conditions. 

In vertical farming, the controlled environment significantly reduces these risks. However, crop diversification can still be beneficial for several reasons:

  1. Market Demand: Diversifying crops can help vertical farmers meet a wider range of market demands. By growing a variety of crops, farmers can cater to different consumer preferences and dietary needs.
  2. Nutrient Management: While vertical farming systems often use hydroponics or aeroponics, which deliver nutrients directly to the plant’s roots, different crops have different nutrient needs. By diversifying crops, farmers can more efficiently use their nutrient solutions and potentially reduce waste.
  3. Resilience: Even in controlled environments, pests and diseases can still be a concern. Growing various crops can help spread risk and make the system more resilient.

How to Diversify Crops in Vertical Farming?

Choosing the right crops for diversification in vertical farming requires careful consideration. Here are some factors to consider:

  1. Growth Characteristics: Different crops have different growth characteristics. Some crops, like lettuce and herbs, are well-suited to vertical farms’ close spacing and controlled conditions. Others, like corn and wheat, are less suitable due to their size and light requirements.
  2. Market Value: The market value of the crop is another important factor. High-value crops, like specialty herbs or greens, can often justify the higher costs of vertical farming.
  3. Nutrient Requirements: As mentioned earlier, different crops have different nutrient requirements. Farmers can make more efficient use of their nutrient solutions by choosing crops with complementary nutrient needs.

How vertical farming crop diversification differ from conventional agriculture

In conventional agriculture, crop diversification often involves rotating crops on the same field over different seasons. This is done to manage soil fertility and control pests and diseases.

In vertical farming, crop diversification is less about managing soil fertility and more about managing nutrient solutions, meeting market demands, and enhancing system resilience. Furthermore, in vertical farming, different crops can be grown simultaneously in different layers or sections of the farm rather than in different seasons.

Yield optimization: Enhancing productivity and profitability

The success of a vertical farm is not solely about choosing suitable vertical farming crops but also about optimizing the yield of those crops. This optimization serves dual purposes: enhancing the productivity of your farming operation and increasing its profitability. 

In this section, we’ll delve into the strategies that can help you achieve higher yields from your vertical farm, including maximizing space utilization, balancing quality and quantity, and fine-tuning your crop care.

Maximizing space utilization

One of the primary advantages of vertical farming is the ability to grow more food in less space. By stacking crops vertically, you can significantly increase your farm’s yield per square foot. However, maximizing space utilization isn’t just about stacking your crops as high as possible.

The types of vertical farming crops you choose, their spacing, and their arrangement within your farm should all be strategically planned. 

Vertical farming crops under LED grow lights.

For example, smaller crops such as herbs and leafy greens can be grown closely together and in multiple layers, thereby maximizing your farm’s production. Larger crops, like fruiting plants, require more space but can be interspersed with smaller crops to optimize the use of space.

Balancing quality and quantity

When it comes to yield optimization, it’s essential to balance quantity with quality. Producing large crops will only be beneficial if their quality is maintained, as low-quality produce can damage your farm’s reputation and marketability.

Choosing the right vertical farming crops and giving them optimal care can result in a high-yield, high-quality harvest. For instance, growing crops naturally thriving in a controlled indoor environment, such as leafy greens or herbs, can boost yield and quality. 

Furthermore, by accurately controlling your crops’ light, temperature, and nutrient conditions, you can tailor their growth environment to produce superior-quality crops.

Fine-tuning crop care

The care you give your vertical farming crops can significantly affect their yield. This care includes accurately providing for their light, temperature, humidity, and nutrient needs and monitoring for pests and diseases.

Each crop has unique care requirements. For example, microgreens require short light periods and quick nutrient cycles, while fruiting plants like tomatoes need longer light periods and more complex nutrient regimes. Understanding and providing for these needs can result in healthier crops and higher yields.

Moreover, routine monitoring and prompt action against pests and diseases can protect your yield. Many pests and diseases can quickly spread in a dense, indoor farm, so early detection and treatment are crucial.

In short, yield optimization in vertical farming involves strategic space utilization, a focus on both quality and quantity, and fine-tuned crop care. By applying these strategies, you can maximize the productivity and profitability of your chosen vertical farming crops.


From concept to harvest:
A complete guide to starting a vertical farm

Welcome to our comprehensive guide on starting a vertical farm. We will walk you through every step of the journey from understanding the concept to reaping your first harvest.

Environmental impact: The green thumbprint

One of the primary drivers of vertical farming is its potential to significantly reduce the environmental impact of food production. This ‘green thumbprint’ can be increased or decreased by the types of vertical farming crops you choose and the practices you employ. 

Let’s dive into the environmental benefits of vertical farming, focusing on water conservation, energy efficiency, and the role of crop selection in reducing your carbon footprint.

Water conservation in vertical farming

One of the most significant environmental advantages of vertical farming is its ability to conserve water. Traditional agriculture is one of the largest consumers of global freshwater, but vertical farming can reduce water use by up to 95%.

Hydroponic systems, commonly used in vertical farms, recirculate water, dramatically reducing water waste. However, water needs can vary significantly among different vertical farming crops. 

For instance, leafy greens often require less water than fruiting plants, such as tomatoes or cucumbers. By choosing crops that thrive in hydroponic systems and require less water, you can enhance the water-saving benefits of your vertical farm.

Energy efficiency and sustainable crop choices

While vertical farming can significantly conserve water, it can be energy-intensive, primarily due to the need for artificial lighting. Hence, energy efficiency is crucial when selecting your vertical farming crops.

Crops like lettuce and herbs that require less light energy are often more sustainable choices for vertical farming. LEDs, which are highly energy-efficient, can be tuned to the specific light spectrum that these crops need, reducing energy use.

Vertical farming crops in an indoor farming system.

Further energy savings can be achieved through efficient farm design. For example, arranging your farm to ensure every plant receives adequate light without wastage can contribute to energy efficiency.

The role of crop selection in carbon footprint reduction

The choice of crops plays a vital role in the carbon footprint of your vertical farm. Fast-growing crops that can be harvested frequently, like leafy greens and herbs, absorb more carbon dioxide during their growth cycle. Thus, growing such crops can help reduce your farm’s overall carbon footprint.

Additionally, vertical farming crops that can be sold locally reduce the need for long-distance transport and the associated carbon emissions. Therefore, selecting crops based on local demand is another way to reduce your farm’s carbon footprint.

As such, the environmental impact of your vertical farm is significantly influenced by your crop selection. By choosing crops that conserve water, reduce energy use, and lower your farm’s carbon footprint, you can increase the sustainability of your vertical farming operation, leaving a positive green thumbprint on the planet.

Economic aspects of crop selection

While environmental and productivity considerations are crucial, the economic aspects of your vertical farming crop selection are equally vital. The market demand, the cost-benefit ratio of different crops, and financial risk and opportunity all come into play when choosing the most economically viable vertical farming crops. Let’s investigate these factors to understand how they can guide your crop selection and enhance your farm’s profitability.

Market demand and trends

Market demand is a fundamental factor to consider when choosing your vertical farming crops. Selecting crops that are in high demand can lead to quicker sales and higher profits. To understand market demand, you should research your local market, industry trends, and the preferences of your target customers.

For instance, clean produce is a growing trend, and vertical farming is well-positioned to meet this demand due to its pesticide-free nature. Likewise, unique crops, like rarer herbs or heirloom varieties, may fetch premium prices in some markets.

In addition to current market trends, future trends should also be considered. For example, the demand for locally grown, fresh produce is expected to rise, favoring the vertical farming model.

Cost-benefit analysis of different crops

The cost-benefit analysis involves comparing the expenses of growing different crops against the potential revenue they can generate. Some vertical farming crops may be costlier to grow due to their requirements for light, temperature, nutrients, and care, but they may also fetch higher prices in the market.

For example, while leafy greens like lettuce and spinach may require less energy to grow, they often sell for lower prices than fruiting crops like tomatoes or strawberries. Conducting a cost-benefit analysis can help you identify the most profitable crops for your specific situation.

Navigating financial risk and opportunity

Choosing the right vertical farming crops can be a delicate balance between minimizing financial risk and maximizing opportunity. Diversification is a crucial strategy to achieve this balance.

By growing various crops, you can spread your risk and increase your profit opportunities. If one crop fails or its market price falls, your other crops can provide a safety net. At the same time, a diversified crop selection can help you tap into different market segments and meet varied consumer demands.

Furthermore, it’s worth exploring opportunities for value-added products. Some crops can be processed into more profitable products, like basil into pesto or strawberries into jam, providing additional revenue streams.

Challenges in crop selection for vertical farming and how to overcome them

While selecting vertical farming crops is critical for the success of your farm, this process is not without its challenges. Common pitfalls can lead to poor yields, financial losses, or decreased marketability. 

But don’t worry; innovative solutions can help you overcome these challenges and enhance both your crop diversity and yield. Let’s examine these hurdles and the strategies to tackle them.

Common pitfalls in crop selection

One of the most common pitfalls in selecting vertical farming crops is not adequately considering the specific requirements of each crop. For example, crops vary widely in their need for light, humidity, temperature, and nutrients. Ignoring these requirements can lead to sub-optimal growth or even crop failure.

Another common mistake is failing to consider market demand. Growing a crop that is not popular in your target market can result in poor sales and financial losses.

Also, not diversifying your crops can be a pitfall. While focusing on a single high-yield crop can be tempting, this strategy can be risky. Your entire operation might suffer if that crop fails or market prices plummet.

Innovative solutions to enhance crop diversity and yield

Innovative solutions can help you overcome these pitfalls, enhance crop diversity, and increase yield. One of these is leveraging agricultural technology to meet each crop’s specific requirements. 

For instance, using controlled-environment agriculture systems can help you precisely manage each crop’s light, temperature, humidity, and nutrient levels, ensuring optimal growth conditions.

Relevant article: Vertical farming technology game-changers: IoT, AI & robotics

Another solution is market research. By thoroughly understanding your target market and staying updated on food trends, you can align your crop selection with consumer demand. This approach can enhance your farm’s marketability and profitability.

Furthermore, diversifying your crops can help mitigate risks. You might consider intercropping, where you grow different crops in proximity to maximize space and nutrient use. This strategy can also help you cater to various market segments, increasing your customer base.

While selecting vertical farming crops poses challenges, they are not insurmountable. With careful planning, a good understanding of each crop’s requirements, sound market research, and strategic diversification, you can navigate these challenges and set your vertical farm up for success.

Read more: The pros and cons of vertical farming

Conclusion: Harvesting success in your vertical farm

Choosing the right vertical farming crops is crucial to harvesting success in your vertical farm. Throughout this guide, we have explored the key considerations, from the basics of crop selection and understanding your farming environment to factors like light requirements, temperature, humidity, nutrient needs, and market demand. 

So, what are the key takeaways, and how can you use this knowledge to make a more sustainable and profitable farm?

 Key takeaways

Here are the critical points to remember on your journey to selecting the right vertical farming crops:

  1. Understand the basics: Every crop has specific needs regarding light, temperature, humidity, and nutrients. Ensure that your vertical farming setup can provide these requirements for your chosen crops.
  1. Analyze your goals and constraints: Your choices should align with your farming goals, available resources, and market demand.
  1. Think about the environment: Choose crops that conserve water, enhance energy efficiency, and reduce your farm’s carbon footprint.
  1. Evaluate market demand and trends: Growing what your market wants is crucial to ensure profitability.
  1. Overcome challenges: Use agricultural technology, market research, and crop diversification to tackle common pitfalls when choosing your vertical farming crops.
  1. Keep optimizing: Continually monitor your crops’ performance and adjust your selection and practices as needed to maximize yield and profitability.

Read more: Vertical farming business: What it takes to succeed

 A call to action for sustainable and profitable farming

While the task of choosing your vertical farming crops may seem daunting, it’s a vital step towards a sustainable and profitable farm. The beauty of vertical farming is its potential to produce food more environmentally friendly and efficiently, and your crop selection plays a significant role in realizing this potential.

With the knowledge you’ve gained from this guide, you are now equipped to make informed decisions about your crop selection. Remember, the success of your farm doesn’t solely depend on the crops you grow but on how you grow them. Stay curious, continue learning, and strive to enhance your farm’s sustainability and profitability.

Remember, your journey in choosing the right vertical farming crops is a continuous learning process. As you gain experience, you’ll become more adept at making the right decisions for your farm. If you have more questions, don’t hesitate to contact us. We’re here to support you on your path to sustainable and profitable vertical farming.

Read more: Towards a sustainable future with vertical farming


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FAQs about vertical farming crops

To further help you navigate the world of vertical farming crops, we’ve gathered some frequently asked questions. Whether you’re a beginner looking for the best crop to start with or seeking ways to maximize yield, these answers will provide additional insights into your crop selection journey.

What is the best crop for beginners in vertical farming?

If you’re just starting, leafy greens like lettuce, spinach, or kale are excellent choices for vertical farming crops. These plants are relatively low maintenance, require less light than fruiting crops, and grow quickly. They’re also popular in most markets, which makes them easier to sell. However, it’s essential to consider your local market preferences and environmental conditions.

How does crop selection affect the sustainability of a vertical farm?

The sustainability of your vertical farm is significantly affected by your choice of crops. Some crops consume less water and energy, making them more sustainable. Additionally, selecting crops that thrive in your specific indoor conditions can reduce waste and enhance productivity. Diversifying your crops can also improve your farm’s ecological balance, contributing to its overall sustainability.

Can I grow multiple types of crops on my vertical farm simultaneously?

Yes, you can grow multiple crops on your vertical farm simultaneously. This practice, known as intercropping, can maximize space utilization, cater to various market segments, and reduce risk. However, it’s crucial to ensure that the crops you choose to grow together have similar light, temperature, and humidity requirements.

GardeningHeavn: Top 11 Best Plants For Hydroponics
GrowZone: How to grow tomatoes indoors with Full Spectrum LED grow lights
Michigan State University: Crops Suitable for Vertical Farming
NASA: NASA Research Launches a New Generation of Indoor Farming
Vertical Farming: Food Crops
WhyFarmIt: Best Plants To Grow Hydroponically: Proven Veggies, Fruits, Herbs


We are seeking contact with people that want to contribute to a better environment. Employees, customers, chefs, investors and equipment manufacturers.

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A comprehensive guide to vertical farming

A comprehensive guide to vertical farming

Master the art of vertical farming with our comprehensive guide. Explore the benefits, techniques, and success stories of vertical farming.

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